26 agosto 2012

Serviço público de televisão

MISSÃO, OBJECTIVOS E OBRIGAÇÕES DE SERVIÇO PÚBLICO que, "apesar de ter uma evidente importância económica, não é comparável a um serviço público prestado noutros sectores da economia".

PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING (PSB): What, then, stated positively, is public service broadcasting? As the name itself intimates, public service broadcasting is broadcasting
- made for the public
- financed by the public
- controlled by the public.

Accountability in Public Service Broadcasting: The Evolution of Promises and Assessments: For public service broadcasting, being independent from the government is fundamental.

Serviço público de radiodifusão: um estudo de direito comparado: existe um grupo de ameaças ao sucesso das emissoras publicamente mantidas e financiadas. A primeira dessas ameaças está nas tentativas em curso em muitos países onde as autoridades governamentais buscam exercer o controle sobre essas emissoras, minando a sua independência e a qualidade das notícias e da programação. [...] Uma segunda ameaça é o constante desejo que os governos têm de realizar cortes orçamentários, o que resulta em uma crescente pressão pela redução no nível de financiamento público recebido pelas emissoras públicas e, como consequência, na busca por fontes alternativas de financiamento.

Public Service Broadcasting: A Comparative Legal Survey: Three conditions are necessary for public service broadcasters to fulfil their mandate in the public interest. First, the independence of public service broadcasters must be guaranteed through appropriate structures such as pluralistic and independent governing boards. Second, public service broadcasters must be guaranteed funding which is adequate to serve the needs and interests of the public, and to promote the free flow of information and ideas. Third, public service broadcasters must be directly accountable to the public, especially as regard the discharge of their missions and the use of public resources.

Public Service Broadcasting – A Fragile, Yet Durable Construction: even the most avid Free Market Liberals are apparently beginning to have second thoughts about the notion of privatizing public service radio and television. We see this in Sweden and throughout the European Union. Several years of ”policy field experiments” have shown that one cannot treat public service radio and television like a shoe factory. Radio and television in the service of the public are at once societal and cultural institutions.
We must not lose sight of the fact that television today is the largest theatre, the most influential source of news, the prime entertainer, and the largest educational institution in the country. It has become the national stage and the national forum for information and debate. To what extent television will continue to hold this position, and not be reduced to solely an entertainment medium, is intimately bound up with the fate of the public service companies.

Public Service Broadcasting Matters: With the [New Zealand] Government stopping funding of TVNZ 7 we join Mexico as the only country outside the OECD without public service broadcasting.

Alex Salmond calls for new public service broadcaster in Scotland: The first minister said that “television forms part of our wider vision for an independent Scotland to be a fairer and more prosperous nation”. “Only then will broadcasting truly be Scotland’s window on the world – bringing us the best of international content and allowing us to show the world what Scotland can create,” he said.

Public Service Broadcasting: Proud past, interesting future? Public broadcasting was understood as government owned TV stations, to be used, as in many socialist regimes, as state information agencies. The result was inevitable: nobody watched the government stations...

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING: the defence of PSB is nowadays the defence of one element in a mixed system of broadcasting provision. Unlike certain other kinds of case in which placing limits on the market may be proposed, what is being argued for is not the prohibition of commercial provision, but its being accompanied by public provision. It is the retention of this dual system that has been challenged by advocates of marketisation, arguing that broadcasting should become an exclusively commercial activity, though possibly subject to certain forms of regulation.

Some Reflections on Public Service Broadcasting: However, in the political controversy that arose in conjunction with “deregulation”, when the position of publicly owned media was called into question, the concept of public service broadcasting suddenly assumed such strategic importance that the question of what it actually stood for was left aside. In the context of media policy, ’public service’ was regarded almost exclusively as an institutional concern, and the problem raised was how best to legitimize publicly owned media, which, for political reasons, one wished to preserve. Consequently, it is virtually impossible to deal with the public service concept without also considering the fairly complicated political context surrounding it. [...]
The greatest threat public service media face is rather that they, themselves, in their eagerness to survive on a market that really has no use for them, will dig their own graves. For that reason it is vital that we make up our minds as to whether public service broadcasting shall continue to be counted among the objects of cultural policy, to be sustained despite market pressures, or whether it should continue to adapt to those pressures.

Reinventing public service broadcasting in Europe: prospects, promises and problems: Digitization offers yet another challenge for PSBs, since non-linear viewing habits will grow gradually. Nevertheless, the attempts of commercial competitors to limit public service broadcasting  to  the  old, analogue channels have not been successful and PSBs have a good chance of becoming trusted brands in the new ocean of news, information and opinions offered by ICTs.
The new context of public service broadcasting has an impact on all of its operations. Much more than in the past, PSBs have to legitimize their existence, both in terms of positive and explicit political and cultural purposes, and as a compensation for the market failure of private partners. [...]
Some fear that the current European public broadcasting systems will converge towards a more limited, liberal model; others believe that European diversity in media systems will continue to exist in the information society. Most important, however, is that the European concept of PSB – as a universal and comprehensive service, reflecting Europe’s cultural diversity, and independent from both the state and the market – will still be able to be put into practice throughout Europe. Only under those circumstances can European public service media remain a prominent institution and a successful content provider boosting Europe’s creative economy, and even be a model for the rest of the world.

Radical new proposals to protect long term future of Public Service Broadcasting: “In light of recent controversies, there have been questions raised about the standards of Public Service Broadcasting in Ireland. This Bill seeks to introduce measures aimed at restoring citizens' confidence in broadcasting. One such measure is the provision requiring broadcasters to provide interviewees with an unedited copy of any pre-recorded interviews, after broadcasting, which the interviewee is permitted to publish as they see fit. In an age of 'citizen journalism', it moves to restore some influence to the citizen in the balance of power with national broadcasters.

Public service broadcasting: a new beginning, or the beginning of the end?  to guarantee that the emerging information society is one where citizens can rely on a media system, at least in part, that serves them.

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